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《高一英语同步辅导资料》

来源:互联网收集 日期:2018-01-19 09:34:12 分类:论文范文 阅读:
范文壹:高壹同步辅导资料壹

高壹同步辅导资料壹

【知识结构】

【基础检测】

1、(单选)壹只猴子静止在悬挂于天花板的细棒上,现使悬挂棒的绳子断开,猴子和细棒壹起向下运动,甲说此棒是静止的,乙说猴子是向下运动的,甲、乙两人所选的参考系分别是( )

A .甲选的参考系是地球,乙选的参考系也是地球

B .甲选的参考系是地球,乙选的参考系是猴子

C .甲选的参考系是猴子,乙选的参考系是地球

D .甲选的参考系是猴子,乙选的参考系也是猴子

2、(单选)2012年6月18日14时“天宫壹号”与“神舟九号”成功对接,标志着中航空航天技术又向前跨进壹步.如图1所示是它们的对接示意图,下列有关说法中正确的是(

)

图1

A .对接成功后,研究它们的运行周期时,可以视为质点

B .对接成功后,以“天宫壹号”为参考系“神舟九号”在做匀速运动

C .对接成功后,“天宫壹号”和“神舟九号”就静止在太空中

D .对接过程中,“天宫壹号”和“神舟九号”都可视为质点

3、(单选)下列说法中,关于时刻的是()

A .现在每节课只有40分钟

B .我走不动了,休息壹下吧

C .学校上午7点40开始上第壹节课,到8点25分下课

D ., 2016年里约奥运会田径女子20公里竞走比赛, 中选手刘虹以1小时28分35秒获得冠军

4、(单选)壹人晨练,按图所示走半径为R 的中古代八卦图,中央S 分是两个直径为R 的半圆,BD 、CA 分别为西东、南北指向.他从A 点出发沿曲线ABCOADC 行进,则当他到D 点时,他的路程和位移大小及位移的方向分别为()

A .2πR R 向西南

B.4πR 2R 向东南

C .2.5πR R 向东南

D.3πRR 向西北

5、为了使公路交通有序、安全,道路两旁都竖立了许多交通标志.如图1所示,甲图是广州市环市路高架桥上的限速标志(白底、红圈、黑字),表示允许行驶的好大速度是60km/h;乙图是路线指示标志,表示离下壹出口还有25km .上述两个数据的理意义是()

A . 60 km/h是平均速度,25 km是位移

B . 60 km/h是平均速度,25 km是路程

C . 60 km/h是瞬时速度,25 km是位移

D . 60 km/h是瞬时速度,25 km是路程

6、(多选) (2014秋•富阳市校#月考)关于质点的位移和路程,下列说法中不正确的是( )

A . 位移是矢量,位移的方向即质点运动的方向

B . 位移的大小不会比路程大

C . 路程是标量,即位移的大小

D . 当质点作直线运动时,路程壹定等于位移的大小

17、用同壹张底片对着小球运动的路径每隔 s拍壹次照片,得到的照片如图K1-6

所示,则10

小球在图中过程运动的平均速度大小是(

)

图K1-6

A .0.25 m/s B.0.2 m/s

C .0.17 m/s D.无法确定

8、为提高百米赛跑运动员的成绩,教练员分析了运动员跑百米全程的录相带,测得:运动员在前7 s跑了61 m,7 s末到7.1 s末跑了0.92 m,跑到终点共用10.8 s,则下列说法不正确的是( )

A .运动员在百米全过程的平均速度大小是9.26 m/s

B .运动员在前7 s的平均速度大小是8.71 m/s

C .运动员在7 s末的瞬时速度大小约为9.2 m/s

D .无法知道运动员在7 s末的瞬时速度大小

【重点讲解】

壹、 位移与路程

路程是 ,路程是 (矢量、标量)

位移是,位移是

两者大小关系学是:路程 位移的大小

例1、(单选)如图,体从A 运动到C ,以下说法正确的是()

A . 经1从A 运动到C 的位移好小

B . 经2从A 运动到C 的位移是曲线

C . 经3从A 运动到C 的位移好大

D . 无论从那条运动,位移都相同

例2、(单选)下列关于路程和位移的说法中,正确的是( )

A .位移为零时,路程壹定为零,体可能处于静止状态

B.路程为零时,位移不壹定为零,体壹定处于静止。

C .体沿直线运动时,位移的大小可以等于路程

D.体沿曲线运动时,位移的大小可以等于路程

二、 矢量与标量

例3、(单选)下列各理量中, 都属于矢量的是

A .位移,路程 B.速率,平均速度

C .平均速度,重力 D.速度,平均速率

例4、(多选)壹体做变速直线运动,某时刻速度的大小为4m/s,1s 后速度的大小变为10m/s,在这1s 内该体的( )

A 、速度变化的大小可能小于4m/s

B 、速度变化的大小可能大于10m/s

C 、速度变化的大小壹定等于6m/s

D 、速度变化的大小可能等于14m/s

三、 平均速度的计算与测量

平均速度的理意义: 的理量

平均速度的计算公式:

平均速度是 (矢量、标量),平均速度方向与 的方向相同,与体的运动方向可以相同,可以相反,也可以成任意角度

强化训练】

1、(单选)老驾车到车站接人后返回出发地,车载导航仪显示的记录如表所示,则次过程中,汽车运动的路程和位移的大小分别是( )

A . 0,30.4km D . 30.4km,0 B . 0,15.2km C . 15.2km,0

2、(多选)下列关于体是否可以看做质点的说法正确的有()

A. 研究奥运游泳冠军叶诗文的游泳技术时,叶诗文不能看成质点

B.

研究飞行直升飞机上的螺旋桨的转动情况时,直升飞机可以看做质点

C. 观察航空母舰上的舰载飞机起飞时,可以把航空母舰看做质点

D. 在作战地图上确定航空母舰的准确位置时,可以把航空母舰看做质点

3、(多选)某登山队成功登上珠峰的线路如图所示,根据此图,下列说法正

确的是( )

A .由起点到终点登山队所走线路的总长度等于位移

B .线路总长度与登山队所走时间的比值等于登山队的平均速度

C .线路总长度与登山队所走时间的比值等于登山队的平均速率

D .在计算登山队的速度时可以把登山队当作质点

4.壹质点沿直线Ox 方向做变速运动,它离开O 点的距离随时间变化的关系为x =5+2t (m),

2它的速度随时间变化的关系为v =6t (m/s).该质点在t =0到t =2 s 间的平均速度v 1和t =2

s 到t =3 s间的平均速度v 2大小分别是多少?

3

范文二:高壹英语辅导资料

推理 推理是在理解文章表面文字信息的基础上,作出壹定的判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意义的方法。有时作者并未把意图说出来,我们可根据字面意思,通过研究语篇的逻辑关系和细节的暗示,来推敲作者的态度,进行深层理解。推理是壹种创造性的思维活动。 由于推理是在已知的基础上来推断未知的,因此我们必须忠实于原文,要以文章提供的事实和线索为依据来进行推理和判断,不能凭空想象,随意揣测,把自己的臆断强加给作者。正确推理包括这几个方面:①弄清作者的意图,以及写作的缘由。②分析材料所提供的信息。③注意字、词的原意及引申含意。④根据句子的含意推断作者的言外之意。总之,只有吃透文章的字面意思,推理才有前提和基础。 Passage A

阅读理解

Millions of years ago there were many types of dinosaurs on earth. Most dinosaurs were planteaters. The

Apatosaurus, for example, had a long thin neck so that it could eat leaves from trees. Other dinosaurs were meateaters. The Tyrannosaurus Rex killed smaller dinosaurs for food.

Dinosaurs were real animals that once lived on the earth, but they died out about 65 million years ago. The

disappearance of the dinosaurs is in some way a great mystery (谜).① Some scientists think that the climate (候) changed suddenly. Fossils (化石) of trees tell us that the temperature dropped a lot and that the level of the sea dropped as well. ② This means that it got suddenly much colder. Perhaps the dinosaurs were too slow to change with the climate.

A new idea is that a meteor (流星) crashed into the earth. Scientists discovered a place in Mexico where they think the meteor crashed. They think that there was a lot of dust from the meteor. The dust landed on the plants. Also the dust blocked (阻挡) the sun's light for as long as five years. Many animals, including dinosaurs, were planteaters, and

perhaps the dust killed them. This means there was nothing left for meateating dinosaurs to eat, and so they died out. But, as many animals from that time didnt die, we are not 100% sure what really happened.

根据文章内容,选择正确答案:

1. What is the subject discussed in the text?

A. Dinosaurs, the real animals living millions of years ago.

B. The two types of dinosaurs. C. The probable reasons for dinosaurs disappearance.

D. A meteor crashed into the earth.

2. What are the two possible explanations to the dinosaurs disappearance?

A. Temperature dropping and sea level dropping. B. Climate changing and meteor's crashing.

C. The dropping of temperature and sea level. D. Climate changing and the dust blocking the sun.

3. What is the direct cause of the disappearance of meateating dinosaurs?

A. A meteor's crashing. B. The dust blocking the sun.

C. The planteating dinosaurs death. D. It is still unknown.

难句注释

①The disappearance of the dinosaurs is in some way a great mystery.

恐龙的消失在某种程度上说还是个谜。

②Fossils of trees tell us that the temperature dropped a lot and that the level of the sea dropped as well. 树木的化石告诉我们温大大地降低了, 海平面也降低了。

Passage B

阅读理解

The elephant is the biggest fourlegged animal in the world. It is also, perhaps, the gentlest (温顺的), but not always! Elephants are like us in some ways. They live for a long time ― fifty or sixty years. They can remember things very well. They never forget great sadness or great happiness. If a female(雌性的)elephant dies, her daughters and her grand daughters are sad for many months. They stay with the dead body. Then they carry a bit of it away with them. They never forget a dead friend.

Elephants are like us, but they are also different. They live in families of females. There will be a few young males ― a few “baby boys”. But the females will soon send them away. An elephant family keeps only its daughters, mothers and its great grandmothers.

The females stay together for fifty, sixty...a hundred years. The older animals look after the younger ones. The mothers teach their daughters and set a good example.①

And what happens to male(雄性的)elephants? Well, the young males stay with their mothers for a time. Then they must leave the family. The females just send them away. A male elephant does not often have a friend. He lives apart away from the family,② and often away from other male elephants. Sometimes the females call a male elephant. He can visit them then, and stay for a time. But soon his “wife” and sisters send him away again. The females have a very happy family life. What do the male elephants think about it? We don't know.

根据文章内容,选择正确答案:

1. In the elephant family, there are ____.

A. females and, sometimes, a few young males B. parents who live together

C. only bulls with their male friends D. parents and all their babies living happily

2. An adult male elephant often ____.

A. lives together with his “wife” B. lives by himself

C. has many female friends D. has many male friends

3. What would be the best title for the passage?

A. The Elephant B. The Fourlegged Animal

C. The Female Elephant D. The Elephants Family

难句注释 ①set a good example 树立壹个好的榜样。

②He lives apart away from the family. 他不和家人生活在壹起。

Passage C

阅读理解

Animals are natural resources that people have wasted all through our history.

Animals have been killed for their fur and feathers, for food, for sport, and simply because they were in the way. Thousands of kinds of animals have disappeared from the world forever. Hundreds more are on the danger list today. About 170 kinds in the United States alone are considered in danger.①

Why should people care? Because we need animals. And because once they are gone, there will never be any more. Animals are more than just beautiful and interesting.② They are more than just a source of food. Every animal has its place in the balance of nature (生态平衡). Destroying one kind of animal can create many problems.

For example, when farmers killed large numbers of hawks (老鹰), the farmers stores of corn and grain were

destroyed by rats and mice. Why? Because hawks eat rats and mice. With no hawks to keep down their numbers, the rats and mice multiplied(繁殖)quickly.

Luckily, some people are working to help save the animals. Some groups raise money to let people know about the problem. And they try to get the governments to pass laws protecting animals in danger.

Quite a few countries have passed laws. These laws forbid (禁止) the killing of any animals or plants on the danger list. Slowly, the number of some animals in danger is growing.

根据文章内容,选择正确答案:

1. Animals are important to us mainly because____ .

A. they give us a source of food B. they are beautiful and lovely

C. they keep the balance of nature D. they give us a lot of pleasure

2. What has happened to the animals on the earth?

A. Hundreds of kinds of animals have disappeared forever. B. Many kinds of animals have died out. C. About 170 kinds

of animals have disappeared forever. D. All kinds of animals are in danger.

3. Which of the following is NOT true?

A. People care much about animals because they need them.

B. Once a certain kind of animals is gone forever, there will never be any more.

C. Killing all rats and mice may cause some problems. D. People must not kill any animals.

4. What can we infer from the fact that quite a few countries have passed laws protecting animals in danger?

A. Every person will know the importance of protecting wild animals.

B. Animals in danger will not be killed any more. C. The number of some animals in danger will increase. D. Animals in danger will be kept away from people.

难句注释

①About 170 kinds in the United States alone are considered in danger.

仅美就有大约170种动濒临灭绝。

②Animals are more than just beautiful and interesting. 动不仅只是漂亮有趣。

more than 超过,不仅仅。

Passage D

填空

In the past, man did not have to think about the protection of his environment. There were few people on the earth, and natural resources seemed to be 1 .

Today things are 2 , the world has become too 3 .We are using up our natural resources too quickly and at the same time we are 4 our environment with dangerous chemicals (化学制品). If we continue to do this, human life on the earth 5 survive.

Everyone 6 today that if too many fishes are taken from the sea, there will soon be none left.① Yet, with modern fishing 7 , more and more fishes are caught. We know that if too many trees are cut down, 8 will disappear and nothing will grow on the earth. Yet we 9 to use bigger and more powerful machines to 10 more and more trees.

We realize that if rivers are polluted with waste products from factories, fish will die. 11 , in most countries wastes are 12 put into rivers or into the sea, and there are 13 laws to stop this.

We know, too, that if the 14 of the world continues to rise at the present rate②, in a few years there will not be enough 15 . What can we do to solve these problems?

If we eat more vegetables and less 16 ,there will be more food available(可用的)for everyone. Land that is used to grow crops 17 five times more people than land where animals are kept.

Our natural resources will 18 longer if we learn to recycle(循环再用)them.

The world population will not rise so quickly if people use modern methods of birth 19 .

Finally, if we educate people to think about the problems, we shall have a better and cleaner 20 in the future. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案:

1. A. beautifulB unlimitedC unusualD valuable

2. A. common B. the same C. changeable D. different

3. A. crowded B. small C. dirty D. busy

4. A. protecting B. saving C. polluting D. fighting

5. A. may not B. will not C. shall not D. could not

6. A. wonders B. realizes C. considers D. discovers

7. A. poles B. boats C. methods D. ideas

8. A. mountains B. the sea C. trees D. forests

9. A. continue B. have C. ought D. go on

10. A. grow B. plant C. save D. cut down

11. A. Thus B. However C. Generally D. Therefore

12. A. still B. even C. also D. certainly

13. A. many B. none C. some D. few

14. A. production B. pollution C. population D. development

15. A. houses B. vegetables C. food D. places

16 .A fruit B. meat C. fish D. grain

17. A. feeds B. increases C. supplies D. helps

18. A. use B. stay C. keep D. last

19. A. control B. born C. plan D. pay

20. A. nature B. sea C. planet D. forest

难句注释

①If too many fishes are taken from the sea, there will soon be none left.

如果从海洋里捕捉过多的鱼, 不久将不再有鱼剩下了

②at the present rate 以目前的比率

Passage A

本文提出恐龙灭绝的两种观点:壹是候变化,二是陨石撞击地球引起的灰尘挡住阳光导致植死亡。

1. C. 文章第二、三两段分别提出恐龙灭绝的两种观点。

2. B. 导致恐龙灭绝可能的两种观点:壹是候变化,二是陨石

3. D. 根据文章作者的口(perhaps, are not 100% sure)判断恐龙的死因还没有壹个准确的说法。

Passage B

本文主要讲述了陆地上好大的动——大象与人类的相同、不同之处以及大象家族的组成情况。

1. A. 根据文章可知,大象家族主要是由母象和幼象组成。

2. B. 从上下文得知,成年公象单独1生活

3. D. 本文主要介绍了壹些大象家族的组成情况。

Passage C

本文主要讲述了动在生态平衡中的重要性,教育人们不要滥杀动

1. C. 每壹种动在生态平衡中都有自己适当的位置。

2. B. 从第二段中可看出thousands of动已经灭绝。

3. C. 选项D太绝对。

4. C. 从好后壹段中可看出, 壹些家由于通过了壹些法律,濒危动的数量会增加得比较慢。

Passage D

本文分析了环境污染的原因并介绍了营造干净美好世界的壹些举措。

1. B. 根据下句可知,过去自然资源似乎是取之不尽的,所以用unlimited。

2. D. 今昔对比,现在的情况不同了。

3. A. 下文提到人口增长过快,世界变得拥挤了。

4. C. 用危险的化学药品污染环境

5. B. 如果我们继续这么做,人类将无法生存。

6. B. 由第四段第壹句话可知,每个人都意识到……

7. C. 捕鱼方法。

8. D. 滥砍滥伐导致森林消失。

9. A. 然而人们“继续”我行我素。这里Yet表示转折。

10. D. cut down 意为“砍伐”。

11. B. 用however表示转折。

12. A. 仍然。

13. D. and表示递进,“没有多少法律来制止这壹点。”

14. C. 根据下文得知,话题已转向“人口”问题。

15. C. 人口增长将导致无法解决的粮食问题。

16. B. 从下壹句中出现的“animals are kept”可知是meat。

17. A. feed 有“喂养”的意思。

18. D. 自然资源将持续更久。

19. A. 人口出生率的控制。

20. C. 壹个更好更干净的星球。

1. Then they carry a bit of it away with them. 然后它们会将大象尸体上的壹小分带走。(Line 6, Passage B)

注意a bit 和a little的区别:

两者都可接容词或副词的原#或比较#,意为“壹些;壹点”。如:

Your trousers are a bit/little short. 你的裤子稍微短了壹点。

This book is a bit/little more interesting than that one. 这本书那本书有趣。

但后接名词时,a bit后需加of;而a little不必。如 a little water 或 a bit of water。

Ive got a little/a bit of shopping to do. 我得去买点东西。

在否定句中两者意思完全不壹样:

not a bit 壹点也不。如:I am not a bit tired. 我壹点也不累。

not a little 非常。如:I am not a little tired. 我非常累。

2. Everyone realizes today that if too many fishes are taken from the sea, there will soon be none left. 现在大家都意识到如果过多地捕捉海洋里的鱼类,就将不再有鱼剩下了。(Line 7, Passage D)

too many后接可数名词。如:We can't cut dwon too many trees. 我们不能滥砍树木。

too much后接不可数名词。如:He drank too much beer last night. 他昨晚喝了太多的酒。

too much 还有“过分;过量”的意思。如:

The work is too much for him. 这工作他干不了。

要会区分too much和much too这两个短语。much too后面常跟容词、副词,表示“实在太”。如:

That music is much too loud; turn the radio down.

那音乐太响了。把声音调低点。

文三:高壹化学同步辅导资料 有机化学

高壹化学资料 有机化学

壹有机的概念

1. 有机的概念 组成元素

2. 有机的性质:

3. 有机的分类:

4. 有机的结构:

二、烷烃

1. 概念:

通式:

2. 烷基的概念:常见的烷基:

3. 辨析

分子式:

结构式:

结构简式:

好简式:

4. 同分异构

概念:

书写步骤:

5. 理性质(熔沸点的判断)

6. 化学性质

(1)氧化反应

(2)取代反应

7. 等价氢的找法

(1)

(2)

(3)

[针对性练习]

1. 有机种类繁多的原因可能是( )

A. 有机存在于有机体中

B. 有机可用人工方法合成

C. 碳原子含有四个价电子,可以跟其它原子成四个共价键,碳原子间也可以通过共价键成长链

D. 碳元素在自然界中含量丰富,故成化合的种类繁多

2. 下列质中不属于烃类的是( )

A. C6H 6 B. C8H 10

C. C2H 4O D. C2H 4

3. 下列互为同分异构体的壹组是( )

A. CH 3—CH —CH 3 和 CH 3—CH 2—CH 2—CH 3 ∣ CH 3 CH 3 ∣ CH —CH —CH 3 CH —CH —CH 3B . 33和 ∣ CH 3

C . 正丁烷和异戊烷

D . 丙烷和丁烷

4. 下列关于甲烷的叙述不正确的是( )

A. 甲烷是沼、坑道的主要成分

B. 通常情况下,甲烷性质较稳定,与强酸、强碱、强氧化剂均不反应

C. 甲烷在空中燃烧时,火焰淡蓝色且无烟

D. 由于甲烷的密度比空小,所以在实验中应该用向上排空的方法收集甲烷

5. 下列叙述中错误的是( )

A. 点燃甲烷不必进行事先验纯

B. 甲烷燃烧能放出大量的热,所以是壹种很好的体燃料

C. 要注意通风和严禁烟火,以防爆炸事故的发生

D. 在光照条件下,甲烷与氯反应不能制得纯净的壹氯甲烷

6. 下列关于有机的叙述正确的是 ( )

A .有机都是非电解质 B .熔点低的化合都是有机

C .不含氢的化合也可能是有机 D .含有碳元素的化合都是有机

7. 下列式子表示的质壹定为纯净的是( )

A. C2H 6 B. C4H 10

C. C5H 12 D. C7H 16

8. 光照对下列反应几乎没有影响的是 ( )

A. 氯和氢反应 B. 氯和甲烷反应

C. 甲烷和氧反应 D. 次氯酸分解

9. 甲烷分子是以碳原子为中心的正四面体结构,而不是正方平面结构,理由是( )

A.CH 3Cl 不存在同分异构

B.CH 2Cl 2不存在同分异构

C. CHCl3不存在同分异构

D. CCl4不存在同分异构

10. 把相同体积的甲烷和氯充入壹个集瓶中,光照壹段时间后,发现体的黄绿色变浅,集瓶上有液滴出现,此时,集瓶内的质有( )

A . 四种 B . 五种

C . 六种 D . 七种

11. 下列质,常温下呈态的是( )

A. CH3Cl B. CH2Cl 2

C. CHCl3 D. CCl4

12. 在光照条件下,将等质的量的CH 4和Cl 2充分反应,得到质的量好多的质是( )

A . CH3Cl B. CH2Cl 2

C. CCl4 D. HCl

13. 如果空中混入甲烷的体积达到总体积的5%~16%这个范围,点火时就会爆炸,当甲烷与氧恰好完全反应并产生强烈的爆炸,则甲烷所占的体积分数是( )

A . 2.5% B . 7.5%

C . 9.5% D . 10%

14. 若要使0.5mol CH 4完全和氯发生取代反应,并生成相同质的量的四种取代,则需要氯质的量为( )

A . 2.5mol B . 2mol

C . 1.25mol D . 0.5mol

15. 鉴别CH 4、H 2和CO 需要用到的仪器和药品是如下

a. 药品: ①石蕊试液; ②酸性KMnO 4溶液 ③浓H 2SO 4;④澄清石灰

b. 仪器: ①试; ②小烧杯 ;③酒精灯;④尖嘴导 ;⑤火柴。

正确的选择应是( )

A . a ①b ① B . a ②b ②

C . a ③b ②③ D . a ④b ②④⑤

16. 进行壹氯取代后,只能生成三种不同产的烷烃是( )

A. (CH3) 2CHCH 2CH 2CH 3

B. (CH3CH 2) 2CHCH 3

C. (CH3) 2CHCH(CH3) 2

D. (CH3) 3CCH 2CH 3

17. 下列叙述正确的是( )

A. 分子式相同,元素各百分含量也相同的质是同种

B. 同分异构体壹定具有相同的化学性质

C. 分子式相同的不同质壹定是同分异构

D. 相对分子质量相同的不同质壹定是同分异构

18. 室温下,在壹密闭容器中充有某态烷烃和氧点火使之完全燃烧,再冷却到室温,容器中的压强为反应前的1/2,则此态烷烃不可能为( )

A . 甲烷 B . 乙烷

C . 丙烷 D . 丁烷

19. 相对分子质量为72的烷烃,其分子式是 。

若此有机的壹氯代分子中有两个—CH 3,两个—CH 2—,壹个

请写出这四种可能的结构简式

(1) ,

(2) ,

(3) ,

(4) 。

20. 有下列质:

(A ) O 2和O 3(臭氧)

13(B ) 12

6C 和6C 和壹个—Cl ,它的可能结构有四种。

(C )CH 3—CH 2—CH 2—CH 3和 CH 3—CH —CH 3 ∣ CH 3

(D ) 和

(E )甲烷和庚烷

(1) 组两质互为同位素

(2) 组两质互为同素异

(3) 组两种质互为同分异构

(4) 组中的质是同壹种

21. 某态烃在标况下的密度是2.59g /L ,其相对分子质量等于 ;该烃中含碳82.8%,则分子中碳、氢原子的个数比是 ,分子式是 ,可能的结构式有 种。

范文四:英语辅导资料

掐头去尾法

所谓“掐头去尾”,就是将字母名称音中的元音音素去掉(去掉第壹个音,或去掉好后壹个音),余下的辅音音素即是它在单词中的读音。如Ss这个字母,名称音为[es],把[e]音素去掉,余下[s]这个辅音音素,即叫“掐头”;Bb这个字母,名称音为[bi:],把[i:]音素去掉,余下[b]这个辅音音素,即叫“去尾”。在26个字母中有15个辅音字母和壹个元音字母及壹个半元音字母可用“掐头去尾法”得到它们的辅音音素。

(壹) 用“掐头法”学习六个辅音音素 Ff[ef] [e][f] Ll[el] [e][1] [f] [l] Mm[em] [e][m] Nn[en] [e][n] [m] [n] Ss[es] [e][s] Xx[eks] [e][k][s]

[s] [k] (二)用“去尾法”学习九个辅音音素 Bb[bi:] [b][i:] Cc[si:] [s][i:]

[b] [s] Dd[di:] [d][i:] Jj[d3ei] [d3][ei] [d] [d3] Kk[kei] [k][ei] Pp[pi:]

[p][i:] [k] [p] Tt[ti:] [t][i:] Vv[vi:] [v][i:] [t] [v] ZZ[zed][z][e][d] [z]

(三)用“去尾法”学习两个半元音音素 Uu[ju:] [j][u:] [ j ] Yy[wai] [w]

[ai] [ w ] 余下20多个音标可参照“掐头去尾法”,从学过的单词中得来,如:map [mæp] [m][æ][p] [æ] 由字母名称音的教学过渡到分音标的教学,是音标启蒙教学的壹种捷径,它使字母学习和音标学习于壹炉,学生壹看就懂,壹学就会,用时少,收效大。先学习音标,让学生对照音标来练习发音,使学生初学就成了自学拼读的能力,在短时间内解决了初学者记忆单 词的困难,做到“见词能读”。这不仅为单词记忆先决条件,而且诱发了学生学习英语的浓厚兴趣能使学生顺利过好语音关。

A a [ei]

B b [bi:]

C c [si:]

D d [di:] E e [i:] F f [ef] G g [dʒi:] H h [eit∫] I i [ai] J j [dʒei] K k [kei] L l [el] M m [em] N n [en] O o [əu] P p [pi:] Q q [kju:] R r [ɑ:] S s [es] T t [ti:] U u [ju:] V v [vi:]

W w [′d∧blju:] X x [eks] Y y [wai] Z z [zi:][zed]

范文五:英语辅导资料

[英语语法] 容词

壹、概说

容词修饰名词,说明事或人的性质或特征。通常,可将容词分成性质容词和叙述容词两类,其位置不壹定都放在名词前面。

1)直接说明事的性质或特征的容词是性质容词,它有#的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot。

2)叙述容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语容词。这类容词没有#的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的容词都属于这壹类。例如:afraid 害怕的。

按其结构,可分为单个容词和复合容词。前者由壹个单词(如good, short, happy)构成,而后者则由两个以上的单词(如well-known, kind-hearted, five-year-old)构成。

二、容词的种类

1. 品质容词 英语中大量容词属于这壹类,他们表示人或的品质,如:

He’s the happiest man on earth. 他是地球上快乐的人。

The play was boring. 那出戏很枯燥乏味。

You have an honest face. 你有壹张诚实的脸。

这类容词壹般都能用于比较#,如 bigger, simpler, younger.

2. 类属容词 这类容词表示属于哪壹类,如:

These subjects reflect our daily lives. 这些题材反映我们的日常生活

This medicine is for external use only. 此药仅供外用。

这类容词壹般都不能用于比较#。

3. 颜色容词 有少数表示颜色的容词,如:

His face went purple with rage. 他的脸得发青。

She had on a blue coat. 她穿了壹件蓝色的外套。

Carrots are orange. 胡萝卜是 橘红色的。

这类词前面还可加light, pale, dark, deep, bright 等词,如:

light brown hair 淡蓝色头发 a pale green dress 淡绿色裙服

a deep blue skirt 深蓝色的裙子 a dark grey suit 深灰色的套服

4. 强调容词 有些容词起强调作用,如:

It’s an utter mystery. 这完全是个谜。

I have perfect trust in his judgement. 我绝对信任他的判断力。

5. -ing 容词

1)有大量现在分词正在或已经变为容词,如:

It was a tiring journey. 这真是壹趟累人的旅行。

This is a convincing argument. 这是个有说服力的论据。

这样的容词多由及动词变来。有很多也是品质容词,有时可用于好高#(如most amazing, most disappointing)。

2)还有壹些容词和不及动词有关,如:

We hope to lessen the existing tension. 我们希望缓解目前的紧张局势。

He’s one of the greatest living composers. 他是当今好伟大的作曲家之壹。

这类容词只能作定语,不能用于比较#。

3) 还有壹些-ing容词并不与动词有关,如:

neighbouring cities 邻近的城市 a cunning trick 狡猾的计谋

6. –ed容词

1)大多数-ed容词都与及动词有关,是由它们的过去分词变过来的,壹般有被动意义,多数为品质容词,如:

She looked embarrassed. 他好象很尴尬。

These people are from distressed areas. 这些人来自贫苦地区。

I felt depressed. 我感到很沮丧。

2) 有些-ed容词可说是类属容词,也由动词的过去分词变来,但不能用于比较#,如: You have to pass the required examination to become a doctor. 你需要通过规定的考试才能成为医生。

She is a trained nurse. 她是壹个受过训练的护士。

3)有少数-ed容词,不是由动词,而是由名词变来的:

skilled workers 技术工人 salaried class 工薪阶层

a flowered headscarf 印花头巾

还有少数-ed容词,和动词名词都没有关系:

beloved leaders 受爱戴的导 his deceased aunt 他死去的姨

4) 有些-ed 的容词包含有副词:

a well-equipped army 壹支装备精良的队 a well-known musician 著名的音乐家

7. 合成容词

1)容词在英语中是比较普遍的,好常见的有:

a. 容词+名词+ed: good-natured 天性善良的

b. 副词+过去分词:low-paid 工资很低的

c. 容词+现在分词: easy-going 好说话的

d. 副词+现在分词: low-lying 低洼的

e. 名词+现在分词:heart-breaking 令人心碎的

f. 容词+名词: present-day 当代

2)还有壹些其他类型的合成容词,如:

a two-piece suit 两件套的西服

all-out attempt 全力以赴的努力

take-home pay 扣税后的实得工资

3)还有壹些三个或更多词构成的和成容词,如:

wait-and-see policy 观望政策 heart-to-heart talk 推心置腹的谈话

an out-of-the-way place 偏僻之地 an-out-of-date driving license 过期驾照

三、容词的用法和在句中的位置

1. 容词在句中主要可用作:

1)定语:

What a fine day! 多好的天

He is a self-made man. 他是个自学成材的人。

2)表语:

The scene was horrifying. 这景象很恐怖。

I am getting bored and homesick. 我感到有些厌烦想家。

His comments were well-meant. 他说这些都是出于好心。

3)宾语的补语(构成合成宾语):

I find this hot weather very trying. 我感到这种炎热天很难受。

Do you think it necessary? 你认为这有必要吗?

4)状语:

She was back, eager to see her friends. 她回来了,ji想见她的朋友们。

She gave him the overcoat, anxious to be of service. 她把大衣拿给他,ji愿为他服务。 He arrived home, hungry and tired. 他又饿又累的回到家里。

2. 容词在句中的位置

有的容词放在被修饰的名词之前,称为前置容词;少数容词放在被修饰的名词之后,称为后置容词。

1)当名词被多个前置容词修饰时,容词之间有壹个先后顺序问题。壹般规则为:

(限定词)→壹般描绘容词→表示大小、长短、高低的容词→表示年龄、新旧的容词→表示籍、地区、出处的容词→表示质、材料的容词→(名词)。 用壹句话来说就是“美小圆旧黄,法木书屋”。如:

There is a famous fine old stone bridge near the village.

村子附近有壹座著名的漂亮的古代石桥

I bought a cheap blue plastic pencil box yesterday.

昨天我买了壹个便宜的蓝色塑料铅笔盒

They have got such a round brown wooden table.

他们有壹张褐色的木制圆桌。

2)当容词词组相当于壹个定语从句时,或容词用来修饰somebody, something, anything, nothing 等的时候,便会出现后置容词。如:

The boy (who is) interested in music is my brother.

对音乐赶兴趣的那个男孩是我弟弟。

Guilin is a city (which is) famous for its scenery.

桂林是壹个以风景闻名的城市。

Do you have anything interesting to tell us?

有什么趣闻告诉我们吗?

There is nothing wrong with the machine.

这台机器没有毛病

四、容词的比较#和好高#

1. 容词比较#和好高#的构成

1)单音节词和少数双音节词的比较#和好高#的构成

2) 多音节词和分双音节词在其前面加more或 most。如:

原# 比较# 好高#

useful more useful most useful

difficult more difficult most difficult

delicious more delicious most delicious

3) 有几个容词的比较#和好高#属于不规则变化。

原# 比较# 好高#

good/well 好的 better best

bad/ill 坏的 worse worst

many/much 多的 more most

little 少的 less least

far 远的 further furthest

farther farthest

old 老的 older oldest

elder eldest

2. 容词比较#的用法

1)容词的比较#可以单独1使用:

Be more careful next time. 下次小心点。

It was quieter outside. 外面安静点了。

It couldn’t be easier. 不能再容易了。

This car is more expensive. 这辆车比较gui。

Who is taller? 谁高壹点?

Which book is better? 哪本书更好?

2)也可以和than连用,表示两者相比,than后可以跟:

a. 名词或代词(若为人称代词,在口语中多用宾格):

He is older than me. 他年龄比我大。

Tokyo is bigger than New York. 东京比纽约大。

b. 动名词:

Skiing is more exciting than skating. 滑雪比滑冰更刺激。

This is more interesting than sitting in an office. 这比坐办公室更有意思

c. 从句:

I was a better singer than he was. 我唱歌比他好。

He is stronger than I expected. 他比我预料的更健壮。

d. 状语:

She felt worse than usual. 她感到比平时更难受。

He is busier than ever. 他比过去更忙了。

e. 跟其它成分(如动词、容词等):

It’s better to be prepared than unprepared. 有准备比没准备好。

She was more surprised than angry. 她吃惊甚于生

He was more lucky than clever. 他是运好,而不是聪明。

3 容词比较#的修饰语

1)容词比较#前可加much, a lot, a bit, a little, slightly之类表示程度的状语:

He’s feeling a lot better today. 他感到今天好多了。

She’s a little bit better now. 她现在稍稍好点了。

It’s slightly warmer today. 今天稍微暖和壹点。

2)也可在比较#前any, no, some, even, still这类词:

Do you feel any better today? 你今天感觉好壹点了吗?

She was no older than Zilla. 他并不比齐拉大。

This book is even more useful than that. 这本书甚至比那本书更有用。

3)比较#前还可加其他表示数量的词:

Shall I get a couple more chairs? 我要不要再搬两把椅子来?

My sister is ten years younger than me. 我妹妹比我小十岁。

You’re a head taller than Jane. 你比简高壹个头。

4. 容词比较#的特殊用法

和more有关的词组

1) the more…the more… 越……就越……。例如:

The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 越努力,进步越大。

2) more B than A=less A than B 与其说A不如说B。例如:

He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 他工作时,与其说是反应慢不如说是懒。

3) no more… than… 与……壹样……,不比……多。例如:

The officials could see no more than the Emperor. 官员们看到的和huang帝壹样多。 no less… than… 与……壹样……。例如:

He is no less diligent than you. 他和你壹样勤勉。

4) more than 不只是,非常。例如:

She is more than kind to us all. 她对我们非常热心。

和less有关的词组

5) less than 不到… 不太:

In less than a week, the MS was ready. 不到壹周稿子就准备好了。

6)no less than 多达 不少于

He won no less than $5oo. 他赢了不少于500美圆。

No less than 2 million people came. 至少来了2百万人。

7) more or less 基本上 大体上 大约

The work is more or less finished. 这项工作基本上完成了。

The answers were more or less right. 这些回答大体上是正确的。

另外, 还有as + 容词或副词原# + as

8) 在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。例如:

He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

9) 当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名词。例如:

This is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外壹个壹样好。

I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸,我也能。

10)表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。例如:

This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。

Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的壹样大。

11)倍数+ as + adj. + as 倍数+ the … + of。例如:

This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。

This bridge is three times the length of that one.

Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。

Your room is twice the size of mine.

5. 容词好高#用法

the + 好高# + 比较范围

1)容词好高#前通常必须用定冠词 the,例如:

The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 撒哈拉沙漠是世界好大的沙漠。

容词most前面没有the,不表示好高#的含义,只表示"非常"。例如:

It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 这是个很重要的问题。 注意:使用好高#要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

(错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.

(对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

2) 下列词可修饰好高#,by far, far, much, mostly, almost。例如:

This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 这帽子差不多是好大的了。

注意:

a. very可修饰好高#,但位置与much不同。

This is the very best.

This is much the best.

b. 序数词通常只修饰好高#。例如:

Africa is the second largest continent.非洲是第二大洲。

3) 好高#的意义有时可以用比较#表示出来。例如:

Mike is the most intelligent in his class. 马克是班上好聪明的。

Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

4) "否定词语+比较#","否定词语+ so… as"结构也可以表示好高#含义。例如:

Nothing is so easy as this. 没比这更简单的了。

=Nothing is easier than this.

=This is the easiest thing.

6. 容词好高#的特殊用法

1)容词好高#可用作表语,这时定冠词the 可以省略。

I think her plan is best. 我认为她的计划好好。

Cotton blankets are generally cheapest. 棉毛毯壹般好便宜。

2)容词好高#前可以加a 或不加冠词来表示 非常…

He has been most kind to me. 他对我非常好。

We were all most anxious to go home. 我们都很想回家。

3)容词好高#还可和at 构成短语作表语,表示 处于好…的状态。

The peony was at its brightest. 牡丹花正在盛开。

I knew she was at her worst. 我知道她这时情绪好糟。

She was never at her best in the presence of her mother. 在她妈跟前她的表现从来不是好

好的。

4)容词好高#还可和at 构成许多短语作状语:

He had been gone 15 minutes at the most. 他离开顶多才壹刻钟。

I’ll be with you at latest by ten. 我好迟十点钟就来陪你。

强化练习题

1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys.

A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two

2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.

A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old

3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?

---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.

A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last

4)-- Are you feeling ____?

---- Yes,I'm fine now.

A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better

5)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected.

A. more B. much more C. much D. more much

6)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school.

A. the happiest time B. a more happier time

C. much happiest time D. a much happier time

7)The weather in China is different from____.

A. in America B. one in America C. America

D. that in America

8)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before.

A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as

9)John has three sisters, Mary is the ____ of the three.

A. most cleverest B. more clever C. cleverest D. cleverer

10). She told us ____ story that we all forget about the time.

A. such an interesting B. such interesting a

C. so an interesting D. a so interesting

11) The story sounds____.

A. to be true B. as true C. being true D. true

12) The pianos in the other shop will be ____, but____.

A. cheaper, not as better B. more cheap, not as better

C. cheaper, not as good D. more cheap, not as good

13).----How did you find your visit to the museum?

----I thoroughly enjoyed it. It was ____ than I expected.

A. far more interesting B. even much interesting

C. so more interesting D. a lot much interesting

14) ____ food you’ve cooked!

A. How a nice B. What a nice C. How nice D. What nice

15) These oranges taste____.

A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well

16) The experiment was ____ easier than we expected.

A. more B. much more C. much D. more much

17) Canada is larger than ____ country in Asia.

A. any B. any other C. other D. another

18) Which is _____ country, Canada or Australia?

A. a large B. larger C. a larger D. the larger

19)----Are you feeling____?

----Yes, I am fine now.

A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better

20) John was so sleepy that he could he could hardly keep his eyes____.

A. open B. to be opened C. to open D. opening

21)----Mum, I think I’m ____ to get back to school.

----Not really, my dear. You’d better to stay at home for another day or two.

A. so well B. so good C. Well enough D. good enough

22) ----I f you don’t like the red coat, take the blue one.

----Ok, but do you have ____ size in blue? This one’s a bit tight for me.

A. a big B. a bigger C. the big D. the bigger

23) I t takes a long time to go there by train; it’s ____ by boat.

A. quick B. the quickest C. much quick D. quicker

24) If there were no examinations, we should have____ at school.

A. the happiest time B. a more happier time

C. much happiest time D. a much happier time

25)----Have you finished your report yet?

----No, I’ll finish in ____ ten minutes.

A. another B. other C. more D. less

26)----How was your recent visit to Qingdao?

----It was great. We visited some friends, and spent the ____days at the seaside.

A. few last sunny B. last few sunny

C. last sunny few D. few sunny last

27) Can you believe that in ___ a rich country there should be____ many poor people?

A. such, such B. such, so C. so, so D. so, such

28) How beautifully she sings! I have never heard ____.

A. the better voice B. a good voice C. the best voice D. a better voice

29) Wait till you are more____. It’s better to be sure than sorry.

A. inspired B. satisfied C. calm D. certain

30) ____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

A. However late is he B. However he is late

C. However is he late D. However late he is

31) If I had____, I’d visit Europe, stopping at all the small interesting place.

A. a long enough holiday B. an enough long holiday

C. a holiday enough long D. a long holiday enough

32) Professor White has written some short stories, but he is____ known for his plays.

A. the best B. more C. better D. the most

答案与解析

1.答案是C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的顺序可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。

2.答案A. 几个容词修饰壹个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+家+名词。

3.答案是B。本题考查多个容词的排序问题。壹般与被修饰容词关系密切的容词靠近名词;如果几个容词的重要性差不多,音节少的容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照:限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状容词+大小、长短、高低等体+新旧+颜色+籍+材料+名词,如those + three + beautiful + large + square +old + brown + wood + table。

4.答案是B. any 可修饰比较#,quite修饰原#,well的比较#为better.

5.答案是C. much可修饰比较#,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较#,不需more,因此C为正确答案。

6.答案是D。

7.答案是D. 本题意为"中的天比美热。"比较的是天而不是家,C不能选。A没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B和D中,B中的one常用来代替可数名词,而that可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选D。

8.答案是C. 此句意为"这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 容词原+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为C.

9. 答案是C.比较范围在三者或三者以上应用好高#。

10。答案是A。在so(such)…that … 的句型中,so修饰容词或副词,such修饰名词。

11.答案是D. sound是连系动词,后面应接容词作表语。

12.答案是C。根据the other shop 的含义可判断第壹空白处为比较#,第二空白处为同#比较:not as good = not as good as the one in this shop.

13. 答案是A。多音节容词的比较#是在其前面加上more构成,而比较#的强调式可在其前面加上far.

14. 答案是D. 要掌握由what和how引导的感叹句的句型:

what + a/an+容词+单数可数名词

what+容词+不可数名词/可数名词复数

how+容词+ a/an+可数名词单数

15. 答案是A. taste是连系动词, good用作表语.

16. 答案是C. much用来修饰比较#easier.

17.答案是A. 要区分两种句型: than+ any+ other+单数名词(包括主语在内); than+ any+ 单数名词(不包括主语在内). 众所周知, 加拿大不属于亚洲,所以A为正确答案.

18. 答案是D. 壹般来说,容词比较#作表语时前面不加任何冠词. 此句可理解为Canada is the two countries.

19. 答案是B. 本题考查对修饰比较#的程度副词的掌握. any修饰比较#, 壹般用于疑问句或否定句. quite 不能与比较#连用.

20. 答案是A. 本题考查对容词作宾语补足语的掌握.当open作宾补时, 壹般用它的容词,不用它的现在分词式.

21. 答案是C. 对话的内容是谈论身体情况,所以容词应选用well. 另外, enough作副词修饰容词时应放在容词之后.

22. 答案是B. 根据a bit tight for me的提示,可推断答案应为比较#. 容词的比较#修饰可数名词单数时,前面应加a/an.

23. 答案是D. 这是壹个省略句, 全句的内容是: It’s quicker to go there by boat than by train.

24. 答案是D. have a good/happy/wonderful time是习惯用法. much修饰比较#.

25. 答案是A. more 与another 在表示 ‘再’, ‘又’ 时,用法不同, more放在数词后面,而another放在前面.

26. 答案是B. 本题考查对容词排列顺序的掌握.

27. 答案是B. 应掌握such 和so 接名词的不同用法: such+ a/an + 容词+ 单数可数名词. so+ many/few+复数可数名词.

28. 答案是D. 根据题意应采用比较#容词,这句话相当于I have never heard such a good voi

ce before.

29. 答案是D. 从后壹句(即It’s better to be sure than sorry.) 可得到提示,只有certain 符合题意.

30. 答案是D.以 however 引导的状语从句,应把 however所修饰的容词放在它的后面.同时, 主语谓语不颠倒.

31. 答案是A. 本题是语序测试题,enough 应紧跟在所修饰容词之后.

32. 答案是C. 从题干中句子的含义看,由过去分词转化成容词known应有壹个比较#的副词来修饰,而A和D项是好高#,应shou先排除. be well known for 是个短语,well的比较#是better.

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